2.1 What are Organisms and Their Components? (Pgs. 37-41)
organisms are living things with components that biotechnologists work directly with they are the raw materials of biotechnology
cells are the smallest unit of life that makes up all living organisms, these can be manipulated in many ways
Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) is a bacterium that is commonly used by biotechnology companies for the development of products
multicellular composed of more than one cell ● frost resistant strawberry plants or endangered animals any fields of biotechnology require a thorough understanding of cellular composition ● Biochemistry (chemistry of all living things) cytology (cell biology) anatomy (structure) and physiology (function)
What is The Living Condition?
the earth is home to a tremendous diversity of living things biologists estimate there are 20 million different species an organism exhibits “the characteristics of life” ● activities include: growth, reproduction, response to stimulation, respiration (breakdown of food molecules), production of waste
● organisms composed of only one cell are unicellular ○ E.Coli, protozoans (amoeba), and algae
○ must use a microscope in order to view these organisms What are the Levels of Biological Organization?
plants, animals, and fungi are all examples of multicellular organisms, grouped into functional units
● tissues (muscular or nervous) and organs (skin, liver, and stomach) are a couple functional units that perform different jobs to endure the whole organism can survive
● cells require energy in order to create proteins
atoms →molecules →organelles →cells →tissues →organs →organisms
Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus (plants, animals, fungi & protist) and are made up of tiny units
protist are from the kingdom of protozoans (slimes & certain algaes) organelles are specialized microscopic factories, each w/ a specific job in the cell
not considered alive b/c cannot exist outside of the cell mitochondrion an organelle that uses sugar to create energy for the cell
sugar simple carbohydrate made of H C & O
sugars, starches (polysaccharide of glucose molecules), proteins, nucleic acids (ATCG), and lipids (fats, waxes, & oils) are all produced in cells
these cells also regulate cell activity, storage, and transportation 2.2 What is Cellular Organization and their Processes
there are two types of cells PLANT and ANIMAL CELLS there are a few distinguishable differences in plant and animal cells for instance plant cells contain chlorophyll molecule for photosynthesis (a process in which plants use light to make chemical energy) What are the Structures of the Cells?
chloroplasts: the specialized organelle in plants responsible for photosynthesis cytoplasm: a gellike liquid of thousands of molecules suspended in water, outside the nucleus
lysosome: a membranebound organelle that is responsible for the breakdown of cellular waste
ribosome: the organelle in a cell where proteins are made cell wall: only on plant cells, gives support around the outer boundary of the cell cellulose: a structural polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls plasma membrane: organelle that regulates the movement of material into and out of the cell
● composed of lipids and proteins
glucose: a 6carbon sugar that is produced during photosynthesis in plant cells adenosine triphosphate: a nucleotide that serves as an energy storage molecule nucleus: the control center of the cell; “brain” chromosomes: long strands of DNA intertwined with protein molecules ACTG used to construct molecules; antibodies, hormones ↴ enzymes: a protein that speeds up chemical reactions
pigments: colored molecules due to the reflection of light of specific wavelengths ...
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