Epidemiology and Population Health
Dr. Toby Turner
May 14, 2014
In the United States healthcare system, there is a significant quality and cost challenges surrounding chronic care diseases. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states more than seventy-five percent of our nation-state’s health care expenditure is chronic care conditions. The major chronic care population affecting the astonishing expense is cardiovascular disease (CVD, 2012). There is a tremendous need for population health management on several fronts, namely, people, place and time. The goal is to introduce nurse-led interventions through a Health Promotion and Prevention model that recognizes the linkages in promoting and social change effectively, as a change agent focusing on health disparities of adults affected by cardiovascular causation. Population Health Problem
According to Healthy People (HP) 2020, as relates heart disease and stroke, “is to improve cardiovascular health and quality of life through prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke; early identification and treatment of heart attacks and strokes; and prevention of repeat cardiovascular events" (Lloyd-Jones, Adams, & Brown, 2010, p. 170). One characteristic of this health problem, cardiovascular disease, is examining it in terms of, people or a population that are diagnosed with this chronic health condition. Normally, a persons’ heart serves as a main pump organ of the body. It is the rhythmic muscular contraction of the heart that circulates blood throughout the body. There are adverse medical conditions as a result of peoples’ lifestyles that affect the cardiac functioning over time. Some main factors resulting in cardiovascular disease risk are high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking (CDC, 2012). About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors (CDC, 2012). Additional medical conditions and lifestyles choices of people can place them in a higher risk category for cardiovascular disease. For example, diabetes and poor diet can lead to overweight and obesity. Also, lack of physical activity or exercise along with alcohol abuse and smoking can lead to adverse influence on heart health (Artero, Espano-Romero, & Lee, 2012). Research Question:
What are the health promotion principles in a community-based Heart health promotion program, when applied, could be recorded as effective behavioral changes toward cardiovascular health?
In regards, to treatment and cure of cardiovascular disease it has been the acute hospital setting primarily and in recent years there is a shift to the community. The health care model is shifting its’ focus to a community effort, mentioned earlier, which utilizes health promotion principles and disease prevention model by Dr. Nora Pender. She is a known leader in the field. As a DNP, this nurse-led clinical program is about developing a plan in an effective health promotion and education program, as oppose to treatment and illness that the patients experienced in the hospital. Treatment and curative measures lend themselves to giving opportunity for increased evidence-based development in relation to chronic disease, namely, cardiovascular disease. This population health study will focus on adults’ ages greater that forty-five (45). People
According to the CDC Factsheet, the indirect cost overall in the USA $165.4 billion dollars for 2009. An estimated 17 million (Bonner, 2009) people worldwide die of cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart attacks and strokes annually (CDC, 2012). Cardiovascular disease is the most costly medical condition experienced by Americans, and the most prevalent and costly condition in the majority developed industrialized countries globally ((Nash, Reifsynder, & Fabius, & Pracilio, 2011, p. 69). It is estimated, almost six million...
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