History Of Computers

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Assignment # 01
History Of Computers
Introduction To Computer
Submitted by
Irrum Fatima
2013-B.env-029
2nd Semester
Environmental Sciences
Submitted to
Madiha Wahid

Department of Environmental Sciences
FJWU – Rawalpindi

Computers
Computers are the
Electronic Device
Have Storing Capabilities
Have Processing Capabilities
Give outputs against inputs
Give instructions to carry out operations and then store in memories Computers made our lives easy and reliable. Now a day, computer becomes necessary for us to survive in this modern globe

Advantages
Disadvantages
fast communication
health problems
reliability
security problems
consistency
violation of privacy
storage
impact on labor force
highly accurate
impact on environment

History of computers
Computers were invented because “necessity is the mother of invention”. Man always searched for a fast calculating device. It took long time to invent the digital computers. A brief history behind the invention of computer is as follows:

Abacus:
It was a wooden rack had horizontal wires with beads strung on them Abacus was the first computing device
It was developed 5000 years ago
It was used to perform simple addition and subtraction

John Napier’s Bone:
He was a Scottish mathematician. He created logarithm tables to carry out calculations. He also created a device called Napier’s bones. It has rods to perform arithmetic calculations The device was widely used by accountants and bookkeepers

Blaise Pascal:
He was a French mathematician, invented a mechanical adding machine in 1642 known as Pascline Calculator Machine contained metal wheels. Each wheel displayed the digit 0 to 9 Only could do was add and subtract numbers

Von Leibnitz:
He was a German scientist. He developed a calculating machine in 1694 It was the calculator that could multiply and divide
It was more reliable and accurate as compared with Pascal’s calculator

Charles Xavier:
A French scientist who developed a machine which could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Punched Board:
A French engineer Joseph developed punchboard system for power looms It was used to create weaving patterns on cloths. Later on, the system was used computing devices

Charles Babbage:
He invented a analytical engine in 1842 that was automatic
This engine could perform 60 additions per minute

Herman Hollerith:
In 1889, Herman applied the idea of punchboards in computers He used punch cards for input and output

Atanasoff:
He was a professor at IOWA University
He invented electronic computer
He applied Boolean algebra to computer circuitry

George Boole
He simplified binary system of algebra.
His rule states that any mathematical equation can be stated simply as either true or false.

Different well known early computers are as follows
The mark I computer(1937-1944)
The ENIAC(1943-1946)
The EDVAC(1946-1952)
The UNIVAC(1951-)
Generation of Computers
The development of electronic computers can be divided into generations depending upon the technologies used. Different generation of computer is as follows:

1st Generation
Vacuum Tube
1942-1955
2nd Generation
Transistors
1955-1964
3rd Generation
Integrated Circuits
1964-1975
4th Generation
Microprocessor
1975-Present
5th Generation
AI – Artificial Intelligence
Present and Beyond

1st Generation Computers
The beginning of commercial computer age is from UNIVAC.
It was developed by two scientists Mauchly and Echert at the census department of US in 1947 The First generation computers were used during 1942 – 1955 Examples of First generation computers are ENIVAC and UNIVAC I Advantages:

Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available during those days Vacuum tube technology made possible to make electronic digital computers The computers could calculate data in millisecond

Disadvantages
These computers were very large in size...
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