AMERICAN MILITARY UNIVERSITY
HLSS302: Paper #2
May 11, 2014
In the years since 9/11, homeland security has turn out to be frequently and generally identified as both a word and as a Federal department. However, a large amount has been learned since 9/11 concerning the array of further challenges we face. Hurricane Katrina strongly illustrates the general impact of weak preparedness and response in the face of severe natural disasters. Widespread international cyber attacks from some of the most sophisticated denial-of-service efforts to persistent and rising attacks on U.S. Government cyber systems reflect the increasing importance of securing the information systems that are the very lifeblood of so much of our critical energy, financial, health, commerce, and transportation infrastructure (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2010). Global criminal groups that have made stretching efforts to cross our borders with prohibited goods, currency, and trafficked persons which signifies an increasing threat to the prosperity, security, and quality of life to U.S. citizens at home and abroad. As we have seen with H1N1 influenza, the express worldwide spread of infectious diseases can produce great disruptions at home. Stopping these and further risks from threatening our nation has come to be essential to homeland security. The 2010 National Security Strategy states that homeland security is “a seamless coordination among federal, state, and local governments to prevent, protect against, and respond to threats and natural disasters (Reese, 2010). Homeland security demands organization since various federal, state, and local entities have responsibility for numerous homeland security activities. The increase of responsibilities titled to homeland security undertakings is for several reasons. One reason homeland security established from the pre-9/11 view of law enforcement and emergency management. Another reason is the definition of homeland security is constantly changing. These changes make it difficult for “policymakers respond to events and crises like terrorist attacks and natural disasters by using and adjusting strategies, plans, and operations, which evolve to reflect changing priorities” (Reese, 2010). Since the definition of homeland security changes in accordance with these strategies, plans, and operations it leaves the door open for unlimited responsibilities. Before 9/11, the United States focused on cries through independent spectrums within national defense, law enforcement, and emergency management. 9/11 triggered a planned approach that contained a debate over the development of homeland security policy. As mentioned above the concept of homeland security has evolved over time. Homeland security as a concept was triggered by the terrorist attacks of 9/11 but after the attack policymakers determined that a different approach was necessary to address an extensive terrorist attacks. A presidential council and department were established, and a series of presidential directives were issued in the name of “homeland security” (Reese, 2010). These directives established that homeland security was a clear, but indefinite concept. Later, the federal, state, and local government responses to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina expanded the concept of homeland security to include significant disasters, major public health emergencies, and other events that threaten the United States, its economy, the rule of law, and government operations (Reese, 2010). Homeland security, despite the definition or strategic document, it remains a mixture of law enforcement, disaster, immigration, and terrorism concerns. Homeland security is a widely distributed and diverse but unmistakable national enterprise. Homeland security has rested on four key activities prevention, protection, response, and recovery oriented...
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