UNIVERSITY OF MKAR, MKAR
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN THE WORLD;
SULE PAUL ONAH
The word revolution implies a dramatic change and is usually used to describe a political event like the rejection of England’s rule. The term also can also be used to describe an economic upheaval. In an ‘industrial revolution’ there is a dramatic change from a society in which most people live in towns or cities. For example, when George Washington was president the vast majority of Americans (some 90%) made their living by tilling the soil and some two hundred years later, fewer than 3% were farmers. Sometime between the year 1800 and 2000, the U.S experienced an industrial revolution that caused numerous changes in the ways people thought, earned their living, dressed, travelled, related to one another and spent their free time. It is difficult to point to the exact years in which these changes took place. Most historians however would agree that the smaller changes occurred slowly during the 1790’s picked up during the years before the civil war and gathered after the war. Keywords: industry, revolution, industrial revolution.
Industry is the production of economic goods or service within an economy. Revolution is defined as a forcible overthrow of a government or social order for a new system. Industrial revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840, this transition included going from hand production methods to machines.
Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. This process began in England in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world. Although used earlier by French writers, the term Industrial Revolution was first popularized by the English economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852–83) to describe England’s economic development from 1760 to 1840, Since Toynbee’s time the term has been more broadly applied. The main features involved in the Industrial Revolution were technological, socioeconomic, and cultural. The technological changes included the following: (1) the use of new basic materials, chiefly iron and steel, (2) the use of new energy sources, including both fuels and motive power, such as coal, the steam engine, electricity, petroleum, and the internal-combustion engine, (3) the invention of new machines, such as the spinning jenny and the power loom that permitted increased production with a smaller expenditure of human energy, (4) a new organization of work known as the factory system, which entailed increased division of labour and specialization of function, (5) important developments in transportation and communication, including the steam locomotive, steamship, automobile, airplane, telegraph, and radio, and (6) the increasing application of science to industry. These technological changes made possible a tremendously increased use of natural resources and the mass production of manufactured goods. There were also many new developments in nonindustrial spheres, including the following: (1) agricultural improvements that made possible the provision of food for a larger non-agricultural population, (2) economic changes that resulted in a wider distribution of wealth, the decline of land as a source of wealth in the face of rising industrial production, and increased international trade, (3) political changes reflecting the shift in economic power, as well as new state policies corresponding to the needs of an industrialized society, (4) sweeping social changes, including the growth of cities, the development of working-class movements, and the emergence of new patterns of authority, and (5) cultural transformations of a broad order. The worker acquired new and distinctive skills, and his relation to his task shifted; instead of being a craftsman working...
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