Kkek4163 L1 Intro

Topics: Pollution, Environmentalism, Water Pages: 38 (2517 words) Published: March 22, 2015
Unit 1 : Introduction to Environmental Issues

OBJECTIVES:
i. understand the global environment system
ii. understand the issues & challenges of pollution management iii. Awareness of current environmental problems
CONTENTS:
1.1 Interactive Global Environment Systems
1.2 Historical Perspective of Environmental Pollution
1.3 Global Environmental Issues
1.4 Engineering & the Environment

Slide No. 1

Some Relevant Definitions
Environment
 Surroundings in which an organisation operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, communities and their interrelation. The unabridged Random House dictionary defines environment as: “The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions or influences, especially as affecting the existence or development of someone or something.”

Pollution
 Can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the air, water and land that can harmfully affect the health, survival or activities of humans or other living organisms

The American Heritage dictionary defines environment as:
“The act or process of polluting or being polluted, especially the contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances.”

Unit 1.1
INTERACTIVE
GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENT
SYSTEMS

Slide No. 3

Water-Air-Land Interactions

Slide No. 4

Unit 1.2
HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
POLLUTION

Slide No. 5

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Industrial Revolution: 1830 - 1890

General:
• Living conditions in urban areas horrify reform minded commissions in London in the 1840s and America in the 1850s and 60s. Progress is slow but the common interest in pure drinking water and sanitation is spurred by epidemics of typhoid and cholera.

• Water pollution carried disease, but no one knew exactly why until the 1880s. Some concerned reformers didn't wait for exact knowledge: John Snow, a London physician, traced a part of the cholera epidemic to a contaminated water pump in 1855.

• Smog episodes begin killing residents of large cities like London. • Demands for conservation of wilderness areas accelerate with the felling of an enormous redwood, called the "Mother of the Forest" in 1851. The outrage over the act leads to calls for a national park system.

Slide No. 6

History of air pollution
Ancient times
• Illness suspected to be caused by bad air
• Burning fragrant herbs in homes of sick individuals used as medicine Renaissance
• Beginning of understanding of caused and effects of air pollution Industrial Era
 Use of coal in industry, home heating in cities gives rise to first killer fogs 20th Century Air Quality Regulation Landmarks
 Clean Air Act 1970
 Clear Skies 2002
21st Century Air Quality Issues
 Global warming, International “air pollution” issue

Slide No. 7

History of air pollution episodes in Malaysia

 In September 1997, Malaysia experienced a serious air pollution episode, haze, which is caused by the forest fires in Indonesia.  The area mainly affected by the haze was the ASEAN region. In Sabah and Sarawak API reaches the 500 mark.

 Haze causes:
 health problems,
 reduced visibility to several meters,
 economic losses due to closed airports, collision of ships  negative impacts on tourism.

Slide No. 8

Basic causes of pollution

Why does it happen?
 irrational use of natural resources
 emission/discharges/effluents

Contributing factors:
 Urbanization
 Population growth
 Modern lifestyle – habits, attitudes, consumerism
 Industrialization

 Transport systems

Slide No. 9

Environmental Impacts of Urbanisation
Urban component
Environmental
component

Population
(Numbers and Density)

Land use

Transportation

Services

ATMOSPHERE

Increasing release of
carbon dioxide, decreased
oxygen production, as
plant colonies are
destroyed by spreading
urban areas

Increased average...
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