Background of the study
Human societies have been gone through a drastic shift from a very simple life (stone age),to a very complex life, which is now termed as Post-Modern societies or states. Due to this transition, systems had evolved into formal and well organized manner. Now for smooth functioning of a society or state, institute of Government is needed. So Governments are key elements of our social lives and their actions routinely shape the lives of individuals. Governments, which ever political systems they belong to; are not a single entity rather are composed of many departments, institutions and agencies; which jointly work together to ensure smooth running of society. Today the concept of governance carries an important ground. It is the use of political authority and use of control over policy matters to achieve the goal of people’s welfare (K. Sumrin, 2008). The main objective of good governance is to achieve harmony of society, rule of law, economic stability and improved life standards of people and this is done bf devising policies. Although, policy making is attributed to elected representatives in a democratic form of governance however, the task of implementation however remains attributed to the bureaucratic machinery which forms the lifeblood of administration. Bureaucracies form an integral part of the government and they do a lot more than just execution of policies. A bureaucrat can be the secretary of a ministry, the CEO of a state enterprise, Director General or a street level bureaucrat such as welfare departments, lower courts, legal services offices, and other agencies. To which ever cadre they belong, bureaucrats have a crucial role to play in delivering governance In short, bureaucracy in the developing countries are seen as engine of growth, development and an agent of change.
Characteristics of Bureaucracy:
The term bureaucracy was firstly coined by Max Weber for formal organizations concerned with efficiency. It is defined as: “An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.” There are following six key elements of the ideal bureaucratic organization identified by Max Weber: Specialization
Hierarchy of offices
Rules and regulations
Formal, written communications
All these characteristics were mean to promote efficiency by carefully hiring workers and limiting the unpredictable effects of personal taste and opinion. Considering the ideal model of Weberian bureaucracy the legal-rational bureaucracy is focused to compliance to the direction from the political representatives of the people.
State of bureaucracy in Pakistan:
Pakistan had a small bureaucracy at the time of independence. However in the past five decades it has grown and expanded and become a fairly large and amorphous lot. Federal government employs over 5 lac civil servants. Out this 90 percent are between Grades 1–15, while 10 percent are in Grades 16–22. Of these the CSS officers comprise around 5 percent. After studying literature on the nature and role of bureaucracy in Pakistan, it shows that it is far from the ideal model of Weber's bureaucracy which brings efficiency in governance process. Literature suggests that the nature and function of bureaucracy depends majorly on level of socio-economic development and political system of the society. But in the case of Pakistan where politics is a function of Patronage, bureaucracy remains plagued with institutional decline and their compliance generally comes from coercive (in case of autocratic regimes) and negotiable (in case of democratic regimes) means (S. Saeed, 1999). Research Problem:
By considering the importance of the role of bureaucracy for promoting peaceful atmosphere in the society and its politicized nature in Pakistan this research aims to investigate the following problem: “Bureaucracy in Pakistan has been highly politicized with every change of...
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