What are monomers?
molecules that can bond to form polymers. building blocks.
What are polymers?
Chain of monomers.
What is the process of polymerization?
Taking monomers and making polymers.
What are the four molecule characteristics of living things?
Proteins(made from amino acids), Carbohydrates(made from monosaccharides), Nucleic acid( made from nucleotides), lipids
What is a macromolecule? give examples
Polymers with molecular weight exceeding 1000 g/mol. examples: proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, lipids
What is a functional group?
Group of atoms that link together and have the same function
Examples of functional groups
hydroxyl, carbonxyl, amino, phosphate, sulfhydryl
what is an isomer? give two examples of isomers..
when a chemical formula is the same but arrangement is different. ex.) Structural isomer or Optical isomer
what is the difference between structural or optical isomer?
Structural is when it is based on bonds and arrangement while Optical is when a carbon atom has 4 different atoms attached to it , making it have two ways to fit inside . like a mirror
what percent of living tissue is water?
List of most to least used sunstances in tissue
1.) water 2.) protein 3.)Nucleic acid 4.)Carbo hydrates 5.) lipids
What is condensation reaction?
Is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a bigger molecule. An example of this would be how monomers form polymers. In this process, water is lost. Think of it like this : It takes energy to combine two molecules. It's kinda of like exercising. After exercising, you have lost a lot of calories(energy) and you are very tired. You are very thirst... water is lost in condensation reaction.
What happens during a hydrolysis reaction?
This is the opposite of a consendation reaction. This is when a big molecule is broken down into smaller molecules. An example would be to break down a polymer to monomers. Just as it is stated in name, "hydro"lysis... water is added.
What are 7 functions of proteins?
1.) acts as enzymes 2.)defending the body 3.) regulating physiology(hormones) 4.) cell signaling 5.) structure support 6.) transportation 7.)regulating gene expression
Proteins don't perform what function?
they don't store energy or information
What makes up proteins?
What is a polypeptide?
Amino acids go through a condensation reaction in order to form for chains(polypeptides)
What 5 things do amino acids contain?
1.) Alpha Carbon 2.) Hydrogen 3.)Amino Group(always the same, Ionizes with Carboxyl) 4.)Carboxyl Group(always the same, ionizes with Amino) 5.)R group(gives identity to amino acid)
What 4 categories can an amino acid be characterized due to it's side chain(R)?
1.) charged hydrophilic 2.) uncharged polar(H bonds)(hydrophilic) 3.) Nonpolar hydrophobic 4.) Special cases(hydrophobic)
What do disulfide bridges do?
They tell the structure of a proteins.
What amino acids form a disulfide bridge?
Cysteine, glycine(smallest meaning flexability), and proline(ring structure, inflexiable)
What is a peptide bond?
A condensation reaction which attaches all the strustures of a peptide together. Carboxyl and Amino react =peptide bond forms
What is a N-terminus and C-terminus in a peptide ?
Since a peptide is a linkage of amino acids, the first amino acid in the chain is N-terminus. The last amino acid in this chain is the C-terminus.
how many protein structures are there?
What is primary protein structure based on?
Amino Acid sequence. Sequence posibilities 20^#of AA. This strusture is major but not only contributor.
What is secondary protien structure based on?
H-bonding between ammino acids. Helix(H bonds form between the partial positive hydrogen of NH group of one AA and partial negative of C=O group to another 4 places away. Pleated sheet(parallel regions)
What is the tertiary protein based on?
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