Roman Civilization Key Terms

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Roman Civilization
One of the most famous temples built in Rome completed in 27 B.C. and dedicated to all the gods, and is called the Pantheon. The Pantheon in Rome is the Roman monument with the greatest number of records: the best preserved, with the biggest brick dome in the history of architecture and is considered the precursor of all modern places of worship. It is the most copied and imitated of all ancient works. Stoicism is an organized idea, dating from around 300 B.C., that held the principles of logical thought to reflect a cosmic reason translated through nature. Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. The name comes from the porch in the Agora at Athens decorated with paintings, where the members of the school met, and their lectures were held. The earliest attempt by the Romans to create a code of law was the Laws of the Twelve Tables. A commission of ten men was appointed to draw up a code of law binding on both Patrician and Plebeian and which consuls would have to enforce. The commission produced enough acts to fill ten bronze tablets. The Plebeians were unhappy and so a second commission of ten was therefore appointed and two additional tablets were added. The first and most famous of the ancient Roman roads, the Appian Way, ran from Rome to Campania and southern Italy. The Appian Way was begun in 312 B.C. At first it ran only 132 miles from Rome south-southeastward to ancient Capua, in Campania, but by about 244 B.C. it had been extended another 230 miles. The Claudian Emperors refer to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. They ruled the Roman Empire from 27 B.C. to A.D. 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide. These five rulers were linked through marriage and adoption. Julius Caesar is sometimes inaccurately seen as its founder, although he was not an emperor and had no Claudian connections; Augustus is the more widely accepted founder. Alaric...